About Journal

Refereed and indexed Journal. A biannual from 1993-2010.Quarterly from 2011-until now.publised by the College of Education for Human Sciences ,University of Basra. Date of first issue 1993.
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Journal Information

Publisher: Basrah University

Email:  magazinbasrah@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Assistant Professor Dr. Alaa Abdul Hussain Hashim

ISSN: 1817-2695

Vocations as Codes of Existence and Definitions of Identity in Philip Larkin’s ‘Livings’

Jinan Al-Hajaj

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 1-11

Larkin’s ‘Livings’ survey three occupations as samples tentatively representing existence. Separated by time and vocations, the three people with whom the trilogy concerns itself are a business man in 1929, a lighthouse keeper probably in the early twentieth century, and a Cambridge don between the seventieth and eightieth centuries. The careers of the three personae expose their mental, psychological, and emotional preoccupations and reveal a lot about their worldviews. More importantly, questions of being, existence as well as identity are explored inadvertently in terms of what types of vocations selected and why, and if they meet or fall short of expectations. The poems discuss how the labourers assess their jobs. Contentment and delight or else weariness and disappointment surface as their views are uncovered. Finally, light is turned on the way workers respond to the careers’ milieus including people and props.
Key words: Philip Larkin, poetry, ‘Livings’, existence, occupation, vocation, ‘Toads’, identity, work.

The Concept of Cooperation and its Domains in The Holy Quran: An Objective Study

Haydar Abdul Aziz Ismail Al Kailany

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 1-21

Allah created the human being as a weak creature who needs to cooperate in order to live and survive. This is clear in businesses like planting, harvesting, creating machines, trading, and so on. In general, people cannot continue their lives without cooperation among each other. One of the supreme concepts that Islam came up with is the social cooperation among muslims. The social cooperation prevents solitude, psychological loneliness and selfishness in all its badness. It proves the concept of unity and how to achieve every supreme scientific and practical deed among muslims. Muslims need each other to cooperate in their secular and religious affairs. So cooperation among muslims was very important which made it obligatory by the order of Allah. This was clear when they were described as being united just like one body. Cooperation and solidarity are obligatory in all life domains for muslims described by the two words (Albir) and (Altaqua) which contain all the good concepts in beliefs, behavour, rules and so on. We are in need of cooperation especially in this time which contains evil and badness. So we need to spread the concept of cooperation to spread good instead of evil in the world.

Linguistic Techniques in Dylan Thomas's 'After the Funeral':A Stylistic Study

Alaa Hussein Sharhan

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 12-25

The present paper examines Dylan Thomas's 'After the Funeral' based on linguistic and expressive choices; and how he manipulates a heightened rhetorical and poetic style as well as his ability to select individual expressions to expose a strong individual response in recording his personal grief for the death of his aunt his contempt for the hypocritical mourners. Poetic sentences require a special composing system that embraces tone, style and structure to organize their elements distinctively, and ultimately will have direct influence upon readers. The poetic composition is attributed to the poet's cultural and knowledge mastering that enables him to display a strong personality at the level of words, phrases and sentences.

Contextual approach in reading the Quranic text Study in text reading curricula

Noor Al- Saadi

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 22-40

The Quranic text is one of the most important religious texts because it is the "heavenly source" and "Arabic tongue" and "universal message." These three characteristics contributed to the multiplicity of the methods of reading it. The interpretive approaches, each of which has a specific view of these characteristics, The Qur'an, the method of literary interpretation and linguistic interpretation, and the interpretation of mental or judgmental and others.
And other approaches appeared in the reading of the text of the Koran, we look at what is a text that requires interconnectivity and appropriate between its parts, such as the scriptural approach, the method of interdependence in the interpretation, and the method of proportionality between verses and walls, hence the modern linguistic approaches found an introduction in reading the Koranic text as a text, It is only a process of development of previous curricula.
The study is not about the historical trace of the evolution of the Quranic reading methods. It is about studying the approach to the Quranic text with its total of characteristics - mentioned above - without dismantling its cognitive totality in order to reach a new reading of the text, This approach to the contextual approach to reading the Qur'anic text.
Therefore, the research tries to answer questions, including:
• What is meant by the contextual approach to reading the text?
• What is the relationship between him and other curricula in reading the text?
• Is the contextual approach of the contemporary curriculum in reading the text or is it an old approach, but it did not take its place in the process of understanding and interpretation?
The second research deals with the importance of the curriculum in the reading of the Qur'anic text, and a first study that shows the concept of the contextual approach and the components of the context. The text of the Quran and the reasons for its adoption, and the conclusion of the most important findings of the research.

Loss and Bereavementin Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights

Ahmed Hashim Abbas

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 26-37

Wuthering Heights is one of the master pieces not only of the Victorian novel , but of all English novel. In Bronte's Wuthering Heights, people try to establish new type of liaisons with their neighbourhood though of dissimilar social ranks and behaviours. This attempt or hope for establishing such relationships is intercepted and severely picked on by their inner conflicts, desires, manners, emotions, and deeds. People of Heights destroy not only themselves but the members of the Grange. So, each of the two families member is going to lose something or everything. Wuthering Heights deals with the theme of loss. Each character in Wuthering Heights loses something or everything for certain reasons in his (her) mind .The researcher is going to analyze these reasons and explain some of them. The researcher has reached at a conclusion which is to consider Edgar Linton who loses each and every thing as a big loser of the novel. Supporting his opinions by some critics' opinions, the researcher will justify these reasons reaching at aim out of this paper.

The Production of Stance Triangle in Sport Discourse

Mahdi Mohsin Mohammed; Fatima Rasoul Abdullah

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 38-52

The current study is set out to present the theoretical concept of stance, as an aspect of interpersonal meaning, into the discourse of sports and to explore the production of stance in sport press conferences. It seeks to provide an account of how patterns of stance are conveyed in such conferences. It detects lexical and grammatical stance markers used by interlocutors in the chosen soccer conferences to achieve what is known as the stance triangle. The study is divided into two sections. The first section provides the theoretical framework of the study. It tackles corpus linguistics, stance-taking, stance markers, and the discourse model of the study (Appraisal Theory by Martin and White, 1999). The second section is dedicated to the practical analysis of the three chosen soccer transcripts. It illustrates the numbers, percentages and instances of stance-taking arriving at the conclusions.

Characters' Appraisement in G. B. Shaw's Man and Superman in Terms of Van Leeuwen's Social Actor Representation

Ala Hussain Oda; Jinan F. B. Al-Hajaj; Hussain Ali Joodi

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 53-67

The current study is an attempt to demonstrate how characters are appraised in G. B. Shaw's Man and Superman. Appraisement is one of the twelve categories of which 'Social Actor Representation' developed by Van Leeuwen comprises. The linguistic analysis of characters' utterances exposes how they are negatively and positively appraised. Appraisement occurs as characters’ different ideologies and ways of thinking are exposed. Thus, they demonstrate disparate views about various issues and express positive or negative attitudes towards each other as well. The results of the study show that characters are appraised depending on their attitudes and their different perspectives. However, they are more negatively than positively appraised due to the abundance of negative attitudes which characters display when they are nervous and irritated or when they engage in arguments in which they disagree.

Problems Faced by Fourth Stage Students at the College of Education for Human Sciences / University of Bsara

Nawal Muhammed Assaf; Sana Abul Zahra Al Jamaan

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 60-81

The aim of this study is to identify the problems that fourth stage students face at College of Education for Human Sciences / University of Basra and to identify the coefficient differences according to the variables (sex, specialization). The study includes (813) male and female students of college of Education for Human Sciences/ University of Basra of the academic year 2013-2014. (186) subjects are selected arbitrarily; (82) male students and (104) female students. The main result is that fourth stage students suffer from problems where female students suffer more than male students.

A Psychoanalytic Analysis of Honey's Character in Edward Albee's Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?

Lajiman bin Janoory; Arafat Abdali Rakhees

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 68-78

The purpose of this study is to find out the unconscious psychological reasons for Honey's anxious personality, regression, an aversion of sex and fear of pregnancy, a matter that causes the dysfunction of her marriage. This study also examines the influence of past traumatic experiences about sex and motherhood as well as internal conflicts, buried deep in the subconscious, on an individual's marital life through the analysis of the character of Honey in Edward Albee's Who is Afraid of Virginia Woolf?. The analysis is carried out by applying the Freudian psychoanalytic theory, focusing on the defence mechanism of regression and Honey's sexual aversion disorder.
The findings of the study show that the forbidden sexual relationship of Honey with Nick and her hysterical pregnancy out of wedlock make her feel guilty, anxious and afraid of sex and childbirth. Therefore, Honey regresses to earlier stages of childhood as a means to escape her adult responsibilities as a wife and protect her ego from pain and anxiety. In addition, the strict upbringing of Honey causes her feelings of fear and guilt because she deviates from the ethical values of her father, the priest, i.e., the superego.

The position of the Greek state of the Jews 333 BC - 30 BC

Hassan Toukan Abdullah; Basem Alaal Khalaf

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 82-98

The Jews lived in Palestine since the thirteenth century BC and were associated with some prophets, including the Prophet Yusuf peace be upon him and his story, as well as the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) and the incident of seafaring and emigration. The research sheds light on the policy of the Greek state towards the Jews from Alexander the Macedonian 333 BC - 323 BC and his policy towards them by virtue of his successors of the Ptolemaic and Salukin and their conditions between the tide and between stability and abuse and persecution also shows that the Jews always with the victorious forces and some of them have been affected by Hellenism and there was a conflict between the Conservative Party and the party influenced by the Greek civilization and take this A conflict that turns into a political conflict between the two parties until the removal of Shimon Maccabee from the pro-Greek party and put himself at the service of Rome and the Jews are trying to get rid of the control of the Seleucid and sometimes ordered and sometimes rebel movements until the fall of the Seleucid state in 64 BC and the Ptolemaic state in 30 BC. M by the Romans.

of Atmosphere Cutoff Systems Over Northern Region of Iraq And Their Relation to Frequency Pressure Systems during the Rainy Season the upper and surface

Ahmad Al Hassan; Kadim Al Assady

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 99-127

This research aims the extension of air studying and analyze the cut off systems at the pressure level 500 mb formed over the northern region due to air troughs. The study depends or a minor climate Cycle and//seasons/ beginning with 1977/1998 to, 2007 /2008 . It also analyses the cut off systems assuaged with their repetition ,along with the stales jet stream lakes at the time and their appearance. Farther, it shows the influence as the Climate change on the repenaition and the cut off system, adopting the data and the cycle 1957-1958 /1967-1968 par basis. For comparison the low cut off on the northern region is associated with the rig six pressure systems at the level 1000mb,they are the Siberian, high And European high Sudan low Middeterean low, and Indian seasonal low where is accompanied with cut off high the the Siberian, high. The research also has show the coincide of the jet stream curing at 300 mb towards the south at at change frome the smooth pattern or cycle pattern, with formation off cut off low .the same can be application whith 200 mb thecut off system bends towards the north in same way the jet streambeds towards the same destination taking curved from bigger than the cycle state from due to the weakness of it recurrence during that season . the comparison between the cut off system of both climate cycle 1957/1958-1967/1968 , 1997/1998-2007/2008 shwed decrease off the frequency off cut off system recurrence at -18.8 %for 00z whith change rate of -29.04 % for 12 z whith increase in the frequency of cut off high system peaks on the region at rate of 400 % esspeciaiiy the increase of its the frequency . for creation months of rain season which didn’t witness any reassurance during the first cycle and the change of reoccurring of cut off system bottoms was accompanied by reaccurancy of surface pressure system

The Spatial Variation of Educational Levels in Al Medina District

Sadiq J. Ibrahim; Mohammad Sajid Abd

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 128-150

The current research investigates the educational structure in Al Medina district in 1997 and 2014 according to the available data trying to expose the educational status in regard to spatial and temporal variations as well as to the factors that have led to the occurrence of those changes. The results gotten show that the level of illiteracy is low in urban areas and high in rural areas for all the administrative units because of the inadequacies in the basic services in the rural areas. The study also reveals that Al Sadiq and Iz al Deen districts have increasing illiteracy level in 1997 with a percentage of (49.3% and 46.5%) and then decreased in 2014 as well as the decrease in the educational level during the period of study. This has been attributed to the inadequacy of administration. The study also shows an increasing level of education in 2014 in females in comparison with 1997 and an increase in the level of primary and above at the level of educational accomplishment in the urban areas compared with those levels in rural areas from 1997 up to 2014.

The Problem Of Shatt Al-Arab River Flow Change And Its Effect On The River Borders Between Iraq And Iran , A Study In Political Geography

Mohammed Z. Alsabty

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 151-174

Shatt Al-Arab River is regarded as a national and international river simultaneously. Furthermore, it forms the boundary between Iraq and Iran. Shatt Al-Arab River had witnessed certain changes due to geographical factors that are natural or human in nature that led to radical changes in its flow . This happened mainly as a result of erosion and deposing. The governmental negligent in Iraq and the wars between the two countries and in the region caused the neglection of Shatt Al-Arab River and increased the change . As a result , the Iranian boundary expanded upon the Iraqi boundary , particularly where the changes happened where the borderline is the Talooc that is the deepest point in the river . This change left political and economic effects on the borderline that generally affects the relations between the two countries and affects Iraq especially because of the lack of suitable coasts for trade .

Groundwater Efficiency in Processing Water Consumption of Vegetable Crops in Al-Zubair Districts

Ebrahim A. Al- Essawey

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 175-199

Throughout this research paper , it is obvious that summer crops in the district such as melon , water melon, cucmber , water cucmber, okra and eggplant over the area ( 4897 acres ) and they consume( 5345596 m3 ) of water. Winter crops , on the other hand , planted over the area of ( 17816 acres consume ( 11501767 m3 ) of water . The rate of irrigation performance of the studied wells is 34% for summer crops and 83.7 % for winter crops . Through the number of the really existing wells in the district that reaches 304 wells , we can add extra area of extension that reaches( 259541 acres ) of summer crops and ( 837352 acres ) of winter crops.

The Geographic Location of Basra Governorate and its Effect on Iraq Power

Dhahir Abdulzahra Al Rubaie; Abdulameer Kasib Mizel; Ali Jarallah Sadoon

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 200-221

Geopolitics is one of the branches of human geography that studies the spatial distribution of the political phenomenon including the effect of geographic location on government power as one of the main traits of geostrategic that is relied on in the evaluation of government’s power. The researcher chooses the subject of geographic location of Basra governorate and its effect on Iraq power as a geopolitical study since the location has an important role in affecting the power of world countries including Iraq due to its prominent effect on the situation of the government’s economy and politics externally and internally.

The Economic Resources of Basra Governorate and its Effect on Iraq Power: Oil as a Sample

DhahirAbdulzahra Al Rubaie; AbdulameerKasibMizel; Ali Jarallah Sadoon

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 222-234

Oil is considered to be one of the main economic and strategic resources in the world countries in general and in Iraq in particular since it is considered as the main source of energy and an important means to achieve economic growth. Iraq has the Third oil repository in the world on which can be depended on to execute development in economic programmers. The researcher chooses the subject of economic sources in Basra governorate and its effect on Iraq power, where oil is considered as a sample, as a geopolitics study since Basra has a great oil potentials having an influence on supporting Iraq economy.

The Role Of Land Ports In The Economical Developmen Of Iraq

ad Abbas Hindi Al Asadi; Suhaila Sabeeh Nasir

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 235-244

Iraq has geographical connections with Kuwait and the Islamic Republic of Iran via his land ports of Safwan (linking it with Kuwait) and Shalamcha and Sheeb (linking it with the Islamic Republic of Iran).
These have great role in the economical development because there is a close connection between the two specially in terms of finance, as land ports provide economical development with the elements required (tools, equipment, machines, etc.). Furthermore, they are the source of all goods imported for agriculture, industry, and commerce.
Land ports, also, enhance the national budget by providing it with finance needed for development in various sectors. Iraqi economy has witnessed continuous deterioration due to the wrong economic strategies, wars and blockade that has brought most of its economic and productive establishments to a halt totally or partially leading to the depletion of financial resources and destruction of infra-structures in addition to neglect and improper use that has lasted over twenty years.


Suhaila Sabeeh Nasir; ad Abbas Hindi Al Asadi

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 245-254

Land ports in the south of Iraq have a great role in the national economy; they (Safwan, Shalamcha, and Sheeb land ports) support important sectors of the state including the transportation sector and the general authority of customs in addition to ministries of industry and trade by imposing customs fees on goods imported into Iraq through them.
As well, these land ports are important trade centres and a means of supporting the budget of the country by revenues achieved and thus enhance the national economy. As trade centres, they serve financing all the economic sectors and establishments working in them.

Widowhood among Women in Zubair City

Sadiq Ja; afar Ibrahim

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 255-273

This study aims at identifying widowhood among women in Zubair city and its levels of variation that result from some demographic, economic and social characteristics. The researcher depended on researches and studies as well as library resources and field survey. Two hundred ninety two forms were distributed among the inhabitants of the housing units in the city about 20% of the widows in the city.

Factors Affecting Japanese Psychology Compared to the Arab experience

Yousif Yaqoub Shahatha; Wisam Hadi Akar Adheem

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 274-287

This research aims to identify the most important factors that affect the Japanese psychology briefly, from the imported from abroad to digest stage by stage up to the farmed the local environment. Moreover, Japan boat search experience and comparing the Arab experience, and drew some lessons that can benefit from the Arabs psychologists from one of the best countries in the world with most areas experience.
In light of this section of this research to the four main axes, first he touched on the importance of psychology in Japan and the impact of Japanese scientists in the development of this science. The second dealt with the impact of the slogan (Western science and spirit Japanese) in support of Psychology and the Japanese people's positive response about it. While the third axis studied the status of collective action, which is a cultural trait inherent in the Japanese social structure on psychology. While the latter axis explained the importance of the Japanese language and motivation toward achievement in the recovery of psychology at the local and global levels, as well as to develop compared with each axis of the impact of psychology Arab science.

The effectiveness of a training program based on a variety of teachings for students (under training teachers) in their teaching culture as well as the achievementand the mathematical analytical thinking of their students.

Abdul Wahid Mahmoud Abdul Wahid Mahmoud Mohammed Al-Kanaani Al-Kanaani; Mahend Musa Issa

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 288-331

The goal of this research is having a Knowledge about the effectiveness of a training program based on a variety of teachings for students (under training teachers) in their teaching culture as well as the achievementand the mathematical analytical thinking of their students. The study sample of the research consisted of (29) female and male students in the fourth grade of the mathematics department. They were split randomly into two groups. The first trial group contained (15) students they were under a training program based on the variety of the teaching. The second adjusted group contained (14) students, and they were not under any training program. A section of the second grade of an intermediate school was randomly selected for every male and female under training teachers from the two mentioned groups. Where the number of the intermediate second grade became (804) male and female students are distributed between the two groups for the under training teachers. More specifically, the number of students in the trial group was (408), while the number of students in the adjusted group was (396) male and female students. The efficiency was applied on the under training teachers in terms of the age, and the previous experience regarding the course of teaching methods in mathematics and the intelligence as well as the test of the teaching culture. While the two groups of intermediate second grade had rewarded in terms of the previous acquisition of mathematics course and the test of the analytical and mathematical thinking, the two researchers prepared (3) tests. The first one is about the under training teachers which includes the teaching culture. This test consists of (25) items. The second test was for the intermediate second grade students, which contains (14) items. The third test contained (16) items were about testing the analytical and mathematical thinking. These tests were analyzed, and the validity and reliability of the tests have been verified. The results showed for two independent samples that there is a statistically significant difference at the meaning level (0.05) by using the (T-test), and this point was counted for the trial group of the under training teachers in the teaching culture. Moreover, the results showed that there is a statistically significant difference counted for the under training teachers in the trial group in both of the test of the acquisition, and the analytical and mathematical thinking. This indicates the effectiveness of this training program based on the variation of the teachings. In terms of the results, the two researchers recommended applying the variety of the teachings in the one lesson according to the ability and capability of the students and improve their analytical and ideational abilities.

The manifestations of pain in the office of the "swing of the pain" for heba Younes from the perspective of genetic criticism

Rswl Balawi; Zainab Drianward

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 332-344

The word "sex" and "feminine" are formed by the word "genetics"; it is a group of feminine sensations that are issued by the woman / poet. Genetics began its literary journey from the beginning of the twenty-first century. The female benefited from this phenomenon to express her feelings, especially those pain-filled senses of the intensity of the impact of pain in expression and expression, so far she is trying to prove her presence in literature and show that she is able to compete with masculine literature. This type of literature has witnessed an uninterrupted development since the old culture dominated the various aspects of women's life and has been made in a secluded margin of literature. Recently, however, this trend has emerged in the literary arena following the emergence of great and varied opinions and controversies, To draw the attention of writers and critics in the world to this type of literature.
The poet Heba Younis may be one of the most prominent poets, whose poetry is characterized by both female pain and connotations. Pain has an intense presence in her "pain swing", a pain that is based on female methods. There is no doubt that the poet languishes in a stream of pain with female images to extinguish her pain by revealing her documents in her office. In this research according to the descriptive-analytical approach, we aim to study the pain and feminine characteristics of the genocidal criticism. The research is divided into four axes: Title semismism, zodiac signification, female environment, sad color connotations, feminine crying.
Keywords: genetic criticism, pain, female, Heba Younis, "swing pain".

The Complaining Self/Ego in Al-Abiordy's Poetry

Ali AbidRamadhan; Alaa Jihad Fadhil

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 345-356

Complaint is regarded as an important poetic purpose as it reflects a real and honest poetic experience of the poetic self. This is because complaint comes from a soul that is burned with sorrow and pain. The poetic texts of Al-Abiordy picture his self-complaint because it psychologically affected his soul and self. The poet's complaint has various forms, but despite their multiplicity, they largely work to reveal his self, its suffering as well as its surrounding psychological atmosphere. The poet's psychological state and complaint carried two sides: One is the broken feeling the poet had felt and lived. The other, which the poet was aiming at, was forming a sublime picture of ego or self. The poet's texts were a remarkable means of expressing his pain and hidden or buried grief through complaining time, poverty, the social status of life, and so on.

Al Darb (Hitting): Its Reference and Types in the Holy Qur'an

ay Tariq Ali

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 357-369

The content of DaRaba (hit) has many meanings and references in the Qura'nic text. Once, its reference is connected to the social systems that irritate the one who has been hit and the psychological reactions that result from it. Another time, it is connected to the metaphorical and unreal matters for the word has a wide range of meanings. This leads us to meditate upon the nature of the word and its morphology and multiplicity of meanings. The research will shed light on this multiplicity of reference to know the reality of Al Darb (hitting) in the Qura'nic text.

Rumiat Abi Firas Al – Hamdani: A Study in the Music of Poetry

Widad Yacoob Salman

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 370-379

Captivity and its pains were the reasons behind composing the Rumiat which gained a lofty status among the Abbasid poetry. They are special for their peculiar nature and they were colored by the colors of civilization and culture. They were characterized by true passion, deep ideas and variation of subjects. All these made them so affective and far from artificiality. Add to these, they were characterized by easiness of lexes, perfectness of structure and beauty of musical rhythm.

Natural symbols and their implications in Said Aql's poetry

Naeem Amouri; Narjes Hashemi

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 380-402

Said Aql is considered one of the pioneer in using the symbol with awareness and intention and a numerous of symbols were accumulated in his long poetic journey and the most prominent of these symbol were the creatures of the Nature such as the flower, the sun, the spring, the wind, the dessert, the butterfly and the mirage. The poet inspired by the reality of the humankind and his relationship with these symbolizations which they have connotations of the continuity of the life, the hope and the love of country. He uses the inspirational dimensions of these Symbols for the sake of his love to his motherland. In this research we will bring into view the broad-interest of Said symbolizes the longing. The methodology of this research is descriptive and analytical.
Key words: Said Aql, Symbol, Symbolic imaging, A natural symbol.

The employment of Quran text in the speech of Imam Hassan al - Mujtaba (peace be upon him )

Abdul Hay Abdul Nabi Abadi

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 403-427

These samples are considered from the quranic evidence of Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (peace be upon him ) ,which Imam al-Hassan al-Mujtaba had a role in directing them and showing their credibility , however we studied them as an objective study depending on the description and analysis in following up these evidence according to the facts of Quranic Text . Taking in consideration the opinions of the great scholars in directing and discussing these texts as well as taking the benefit from the books of interpretation, language , lexicons, biographies and other origins of books which should not be ignored by any researcher .

Oblation in Al Sayyab's Poetry: A study of the Rituals of the Self and the Other

Haitham Kadhum Salih

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 428-454

The main theme of this research is the concept and touchstone of oblation. The terminological and linguistic meaning were introduced in the introduction, where we uncovered the depth and overlap between the two. The poet is Al Sayyab whose poems were the field where we searched for the concept and its touchstone.
The research is divided into two sections preceded by the prelude and followed by the conclusions, the footnotes and the resources.
The first section is about the self as being described as a victim and oblation in the poems of the poet. The self was pictured in the poems in different ways; the self that rejects the heritage, the submissive self that accepts this, the oppressed and suppressed self, the surrendered self, the rebellious self and the dismissive self.
The second section uncovers the other as being described as a victim or oblation in the beginning of the tragedy and violence. The woman is present in this section as she is the weakest circle in the bossy male society. Al Sayyab's poems are dangerous store for passing the cultural aspects.
The conclusion summarizes for us what has been researched; the oblation and the surrounding rituals.

The Word 'Throne' and Its derivatives in Holy Qur'an: A Semantic Study

Farha Aziz Mohsin

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 455-469

This paper which is entitled "The Word 'Throne' and Its derivatives in Holy Qur'an: A Semantic Study" deals meticulously and in detail with the word 'Throne' and its Qur'anic contexts and significance as well as the scientists and interpreters' points of view. It also shows its cultural ideology and the intellectual and doctrinal dimensions that helped form the word's meanings and references.
This paper consists of three chapters preceded by an introduction and followed by a conclusion and a list of the references cited. The first chapter deals with the term 'Throne' in language and etymology. Chapter Two deals the metaphysical meaning of the word. Chapter Three tackles the word and its derivatives and its earthly significance whether referring to power and authority or its normal sense or reference.

The Remains of AlAAl Book by Abi Abdullah Al-Hussein Bin Ahmed Bin Khalawaih (d.370)


Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 37, Issue 4, Pages 5-20

lbn Khalwayh composed many books in different domains such as Language, Grammar, Literature and The Holy Quran reciting Approaches. His works are seen as significant linguistic and Quranic sources we might say that there is no Study concerning Arabic Language never depend on his writings such the Definition of Thirty Chapters the Holy Quran, Non in Arab Speech, The Summary In Odd Readings, The Explanation of Maksurat Ibn Duraid and etc.
Some of his works had been missed, such as (Al-AAl Book) of which our research discusses some texts, that Abu Al-Hassn Bin Ali Bin lsa Al-rdabily
ما تبقى من كتاب )الآل( لأبي عبد الله الحسين بن أحمد بن خالويه )ت 072 ه(
(died at 693 H.D) mentioned and transferred them alone in his book ( Kashf Al-Guma in recognizing Imams).
The Approaches of lbn Khalwayh's texts, by which will strengthen what we are discussing, match with his manners in his works, in addition to their language and expression We rather that these texts form more than Half of (Al-AAl Book) if not the most.
We wish that this research serves our Language and revives its heritage

Reasons of Authorship for Arabs:AliteraryStudy of Old and Modern Opinions

Qasim Kh. M.Alsukainy

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 2, Pages 428-443

This paper sheds light upon an important aspect of the systematic structure of the Arabic book, namely the reason behind classification and authoring of books, The paper shows that the reasons vary from one book into another, and according to the cause that prompted the author to write this book .
I was preceded by many authors who addressed this subject so none of them singled out a book in this respect .thus I set out to write this research regarding the reasons behind authoring by Arabs .
The research concluded that reasons of authoring is a pillar of the Arabic ,Islamic book the intentionality of authoring to the reader.

The Jazair of Basrah in the Writings of Foreign Travelers since the second half of the sixteenth century until the end of the eighteenth century

Asst. Lect. Mushtaq Idan Obaid

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 155-188

Abstract :
This study focused on the writings of foreign travelers who passed through and visited Jazair al Basra , and the difference between their nationalities since the second half of the sixteenth century until the end of the eighteenth century , and We have reviewed everything that those travelers wrote to know the conditions of the region , and The research included a three axes and conclusion . The first includes Jazair al Basra in the writings of globetrotter in the second half of the sixteenth century . During that period, their writings focused on the conflict between the Ottoman Empire and Al Alain .The second axis pointed out to what the globetrotter wrote about the region in the seventeenth century when the region laid under the occupation of the ( the princedom of Al afrasiabi ) . while the last axis dealt with what the globetrotter books included in the eighteenth century . It clearly indicates to the Al Muntafiq control on the capabilities of al Jazair Area . The conclusion of this research talks about the impressions of Globetrotter from Al Jazair often not exceeding the general description , so that we find only little disparity in the provision of a wider picture , as well as it is not without the clamping of its population .

Exploring Deixis in John Steinbeck's ''The pearl'' according to Verschueren's model of Deixis: A pragmatic- stylistic Study of Part I*

Murtadha Ali Hussein; Ph.D; Assist. Prof. ALA ABDULHUSSEIN HASHIM; Prof. MAJEED HAMEED JASSIM; Ph.D

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 42, Issue 5, Pages 395-406

In all languages, the reference of many words and expressions depends entirely upon the situational context of the utterance, and can only be understood in the light of these circumstances. This linguistic phenomenon is called deixis. The present study is an application of Verschueren's model of deixis to Steinbeck's ''The pearl''. This model is based on five types of deixis: Personal Deixis, Spatial Deixis, Temporal Deixis, Discourse Deixis and Social Deixis. The literary work that is used for analysis is the first part of John Steinbeck's ''The Pearl''.
The study consists of two sections; theoretical section and practical section. The theoretical part of the study contains several sections concerning deixis and the adopted model. As far as the practical part is concerned, the researcher will analyse the first part of the novella, ''The pearl'' which is composed of two chapters.

The Variation of Quran Intervals in Maryam Sura

d.Amal M. Al-Abdula

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 32-42

The variation in Maryam Sura is so noticeable in accord with the musical language and artistic style of Quran. The utterances convey expressive and suggestive meanings to the reader or listener. Quran uses the utterance that is harmonious with the end of the verse, the type of story told, and the subject it tackles. Thus the verse fulfills its function perfectly, and this is one secret of the Quran inimitability, which surpasses the Arabic style. In this holy Sura, the intervals form a musical atmosphere and rhythm. This bestows a suggestiveness upon the intervals of the Sura and its comprehensive artistic locution. Although it is at a sublime level of beauty and formulation, the occurrence of intervals is unintentional and natural

The Estimation of Irrigation water Needs for Wheat and Barley in Misan Province

Ali GhlaisNahi Al-saedi

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 37, Issue 4, Pages 184-197

Has been estimated water requirements for irrigating crops of wheat and barley climate in the province of Maysan, depending on the formula of Pliny - Chridl, and it became clear that the net water needs has reached (71, 96.6, 112.2 0.71, 29.3) mm for the months of the growing season, which extends from November until the month of March. as it turns out that the amount of rainfall a few cannot be relied upon to fill the needs of water for irrigating crops in any month of the season.

Philosophy and its types for Al Farabi

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 43, Issue 2, Pages 146-161

Wisdom for Al Farabi two types: the first is Wisdom by condition, it is the very dexterity and excessive in any industry, namely a restrictive wisdom by a domain of life’s domains. The second is the wisdom of all. It is “the philosophy”, which is wisdom that has no limits in its domains, on the contrary, it demands perfection in all fields and uses all industries and all virtues and all wisdoms. That is why his owner must fulfill certain conditions which make him a philosopher by truth, and the absence of this conditions will make him a philosopher of another type for another type of philosophy. So what are the types of philosophy?
Al farabi denominates true and correct philosophy "philosophy by truth", it is the theoretical and practical virtues with certain discernment, with the ability to make them all exist in nations. So, if the first president installed them in the public, it ‘s named” external philosophy”. And it be by convincing methods, namely by simulate all the theoretical things that are found in philosophy, and habituated them (nations) to the practical virtues. While incomplete philosophy, its owner is the false philosopher who does not yet know the purpose for which he has solicited philosophy.
Another type of philosophy: flashy philosophy, is a philosophy of someone who has learned theoretical sciences but has not been accustomed to virtuous acts because he was attached to his caprices and his desire. While the falsification philosophy is a philosophy of a person who has learned theoretical sciences without being prepared by nature towards them.
key words: Philosophy by truth-External philosophy- Incomplete philosophy- Flashy philosophy- Falsification philosophy

The war versus peace Language: a Study of Anti-war Language and Imagery in Selected Poems on the Iraqi war

Jinan F. Al-Hajaj

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 185-205

The 2003 war in Iraq has generated a great deal of controversy, debate, as well as literature and more specifically poetry. Ever since, poets have continued to contribute poetry that made clear their refusal and objection to military strategies or even support and encouragement of war practices. In the case of the 2003 American war in Iraq, the pro-war is highly subordinated to the anti-war poem. Books were published before and after the war broke and websites team with poems contributed by thousands of conscientious objecting poets all over the world. This study concentrates on the anti-war poetry contributed namely by American poets. The selection of poems display viewpoints that are unanimously hostile to the war but various in the methods and strategies these anti-war views are poised. Poems by David Ferri-Smith but also by David Siluk, Charles Bernstein, and others are tackled in the current study.

The Controversy of the Close and Away in the Poetry of Al-Abbas Bin Al-Ahnaf

Hanan Bandar Ali

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 39, Issue 2, Pages 93-114

The near-far controversy is an opposite controversy resulting from combining the near - far dichotomy .This results in creating conflicting context of the relation between the two sides. This controversy has a clear existence in the poetry of Al-Abas bin Al-Ahnef. It contributed in finding a conflictive movement according to a group of relations that are complex and of conflictive forces in formations of the pure emotional component. It represents the nearness of the self to the beloved and the farness from him in the circle of the spatial and temporal nearness and farness. This
draws a context to the emotional feeling by intellectual contents that elicit visions and philosophical approach deepening the artistic and aesthetic structure of the text .

Sufism Emotional and Experimental Subjects

Saddam Fahad Al-Asadi and Abdul Hussein Bargash Abid Ali

Journal of Basra researches for Human Sciences, Volume 38, Issue 3, Pages 161-184

Our purpose ( goal ) from the subject of the sufi poetry is not a new study of the Islamic Sufism , that is a task revealed by those who are concened with Sufism in ancient and present time , that we shall discuss what they did say in their most important ideas and cases which distinct them and show their understanding nature to the sympathy cases and sonl struggeling and the relationship between god , the creature and his creatures and the psychological situations that sufi feels while he is in the way to the god , knowing and witnessing him which would indicate their expressing ability in an effective technical way .
Thus Sufism in its essence is an experience that its base is building a private relation between god and his creature so , it is aself tendency that is found everywhere and in any time . those of Sufism depend on their hearts in making their relation with god . for them, the heart is the one who loves ,see, hear and by which they receive knowledge directly from the world from this concept love becomes the base of the truthful Sufism idea and it includes its weaknessest creatures until it reaches its maximum to love who knows Allah and things become in Allah and from Allah .

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